Mayan Sun Calendar. South America must be on my mind. This is an image of the Mayan Calendar. As you can see the ray of the sun on the outside, and the face in the middle. The Mayan had a very complicated system (complicated for me since it involves so much math). These people really understood the celestial heavens. They made maps, and recorded in detail the stars and planets they saw each day. What (if anything) happened that was relevant.